ENVIS Centre, Ministry of Environment & Forest, Govt. of India

Printed Date: Tuesday, August 4, 2020

Adyar estuary

 

Adyar estuary

 

 

Name of the River
Adyar
Place
Adyar – Fore Shore Estate
District Chennai Corporation
State Tamil Nadu
Latitude 13° 10’N
Longitude 80° 17’E
Important land marks  
Average depth 0.5 m
Type of the Estuary  
Predominant Benthic fauna Crab – Uca lacteus, U. marionis
Commercially important Finfishes Chanos chanos, Liza macrolepis, Etroplus surratensis, Sillago sithama
Industrial effluent discharges 2,52,000 liter/day
Sewage discharges 1.8 million gallons/day

 Image

 

Map

 River Basin Map

 Physico-chemical entities

 Physico-chemical parameters of Adyar Estuary (Mean ± SE) during July 2010- June 2011

Sl. No.
Environmental Parameters
Pre-Monsoon
Monsoon
Post-Monsoon
Summer
1
Atmospherictemperature(°C)
30.00.57
27.30.33
28.61.20
29.00.57
2
Surfacewatertemperature(°C)
31.33±0.88
28.60.66
28.60.66
30.00.00
3
pH
7.53±0.14
7.06±0.14
7.1±0.17
7.86±0.13
4
Salinity(‰)
22.02.08
25.62.02
25.62.40
15.62.33
5
DissolvedOxygen(mg/l)
1.81±0.90
5.76±0.63
4.77±0.67
1.97±0.61
6
Nitrite(mg/l)
0.22±0.39
0.12±0.21
0.22±0.38
0.16±0.28
7
Ammonia(mg/l)
5.50±1.32
2.16±0.92
1.80±1.11
6.66±0.33
8
Phosphate(mg/l)
5.33±1.33
0.57±0.23
0.58±0.22
3.33±0.88

 

Mean concentrations of dissolved gases and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), and some ancillary data, for all 7 axial transects

Sl.No.
 
Dissolved
CH4
(nM)
Dissolved N2O
(nM)
Percent
O2
saturation
NH+4
M)
NO-3
M)
NO-2
(µM)
Rainfall
(mm)
Wind speed
 (m s-1)
1
04th Augu st 2003
 
 
 
 
 
 
126
4.9 ± 2.0
2
Upper catchment
33
(4–53)
32
(16–61)
104
(79–110)
625
(67–1900)
28
(13–43)
8        
(3–16)
 
 
3
Lower catchment
1860
(9–3240)
44
(4–257)
44
(25–72)
2750
(1800–3300)
8        
(2–23)
50    
(34–66)
 
 
4
Estuary
32
(7–41)
19
(7–34)
101
(92–109)
1620
(150–1740)
11    
(3–17)
64    
(4–82)
 
 
5
10th October 2003
 
 
 
 
 
 
149
3.3 ± 1.3
6
Upper catchment
7
(2–32)
9
(7–14)
79
(55–97)
709         
(520–1370)
40    
(6–76)
20    
(2–43)
 
 
7
Lower catchment
277
(8–950)
16
(7–57)
38
 (25–53)
1310    
(567–2746)
16    
(7–32)
35    
(16–85)
 
 
8
Estuary
47
(5–90)
7
(5–8)
89
(60–121)
720         
(522–793)
9        
(5–13)
10    
(5–14)
 
 
9
28th December 2004
 
 
 
 
 
 
77
2.4 ± 1.0
10
Upper catchment
7
 (3–10)
9
(6–13)
62
(30–79)
993
(280–2575)
32    
(18–46)
19    
(5–32)
 
 
11
Lower catchment
1160
(18–5800)
13
(9–21)
22
(9–49)
4280
(2564–4885)
13    
(5–31)
31    
(16–52)
 
 
12
Estuary
30
(10–76)
10
(6–11)
77
 (46–111)
1710
(72–2839)
18    
(3–46)
97    
(9–98)
 
 
13
27th February 2004
 
 
 
 
 
 
0
3.8 ± 1.2
14
Upper catchment
2680
(1090–8220)
27
(9–56)
98
(64–111)
1670
(692–2980)
33    
(1–71)
50    
(22–97)
 
 
15
Lower catchment
152,000
(14,430–271,000)
7
(6–9)
7
(1–21)
3600
(2236–4035)
42    
(13–71)
63    
(27–99)
 
 
16
Estuary
5620
(37–13,700)
44
 (6–82)
67
(42–88)
1390
(525–2204)
5        
(3–10)
88    
(68–98)
 
 
17
27th May 2004
 
 
 
 
 
 
232
2.7 ± 1.3
18
Upper catchment
5740
(835–33,170)
29
(6–127)
87
(49–114)
1140
(301–1990)
20    
(5–46)
60    
(19–98)
 
 
19
Lower catchment
153,000
(7675–386,000)
8
(7–14)
23
(8–44)
2060
(633–3350)
7        
(5–12)
41    
(14–68)
 
 
20
Estuary
3230
(27–6500)
12
(6–13)
35
(11–103)
420
(114–520)
22    
(12–31)
26    
(10–43)
 
 
21
19th Septmber 2004
 
 
 
 
 
 
241
3.1 ± 0.7
22
Upper catchment
7520
 (809–14,582)
94
(14–451)
58
(35–82)
1100
(602–2650)
13    
(1–36)
15    
(1–49)
 
 
23
Lower catchment
114,000
 (4729–202,000)
8
(7–11)
25
(15–40)
3600 
(2705–5864)
17    
(10–31)
28    
(10–45)
 
 
24
Estuary
2500
 (5–3876)
34
(9–46)
83
(47–122)
980 
(98–1945)
45    
(10–97)
52    
(26–62)
 
 
25
28th December 2004
 
 
 
 
 
 
7
4.8 ± 17
26
Upper catchment
1090
(517–2650)
98
(7–283)
97
(89–104)
2000  
(200–5000)
32    
(3–72)
68    
(32–100)
 
 
27
Lower catchment
21,600
 (16,460–37,550)
6
(4–8)
61
(49–86)
3100
(575–5175)
7        
(2–23)
34    
(9–78)
 
 
28
Estuary
4400
(7–12,367)
30
(7–55)
88
(25–130)
890
(50–1775)
9        
(3–16)
94    
(79–100)
 
 
Numb2ers in brackets refer to data ranges. Rainfall data are monthly averages immediately prior to sampling and wind speeds are averages for the day of sampling.
             
Ø High NO2 implied some nitrification of a large anthropogenic NH+4 pool.  In the lower catchment CH4 was maximal (6.3 ± 4.3 x 104 nM), exceeding the ebullition threshold, whereas strong under saturation of N2O and O2 implied intense denitrification.
Ø Emissions fluxes for the whole Adyar system ~2.5 x 108 g CH4  yr-1 and ~2.4 x 106 g N2O yr-1 estimated with a gas exchange relation and ~2 x 109 g CH4 yr-1 derived with a floating chamber illustrate the importance of CH4 ebullition. 
Ø An equivalent CO2 flux ~1-10 x 1010 g yr-1 derived using global warming potentials is equivalent to total Chennai motor vehichle CO2 emissions in one month. 
Ø Studies such as this may inform more effective waste management and future compliance with international emissions agreements.
 

Monthly methane efflux (mg m-2 hr-1), in the polluted wetlands of Madras City, India, 1993-94. The values are means ± SD of four replicates.

Sl. No.
Month
Adyar river
Adyar estuary
Bay of Bengal
B. Canal
V-C Estuarine Complex
1
July
21.20 ± 1.90
4.01 ± 0.10
0.58 ± 0.01
4.62 ± 0.28
8.67 ± 0.02
2
August
2.21 ± 0.18
23.24 ± 0.40
0.47 ± 0.01
2.73 ± 0.14
13.52 ± 0.03
3
September
3.24 ± 0.15
22.50 ± 0.81
2.70 ± 0.14
3.92 ± 0.16
7.98 ± 0.02
4
October
2.94 ± 0.15
2.67 ± 0.09
3.98 ± 0.15
1.83 ± 0.09
11.35 ± 0.05
5
November
2.27 ± 0.08
2.75 ± 0.05
1.98 ± 0.08
19.45 ± 1.50
1.97 ± 0.01
6
December
38.9 ± 1.80
45.97 ± 0.54
2.04 ± 0.09
2.91 ± 0.12
3.37 ± 0.02
7
January
1.91 ± 0.14
2.20 ± 0.03
1.92 ± 0.06
1.15 ± 0.05
3.96 ± 0.01
8
February
2.02 ± 0.16
28.39 ± 0.70
1.97 ± 0.13
2.30 ± 0.12
9.13  ± 0.04
9
March
3.6 ± 0.06
20.30 ± 0.19
3.75 ± 0.34
7.70 ± 0.46
3.60 ± 0.02
10
April
4.5 ± 0.32
8.40 ± 0.27
7.10 ± 0.46
12.37 ± 0.59
4.60 ± 0.03
11
May
8.42 ± 0.61
18.60 ± 0.47
8.56 ± 0.82
30.34 ± 1.30
11.34 ± 0.06
12
June
12.56 ± 0.77
5.94 ± 0.55
2.12 ± 0.09
6.38 ± 0.39
9.02 ± 0.04
 
B. Canal – Buckingham Canal
Vellar-Coleroon estuarine complex (Unpolluted wetland ecosystem) (22) – Reference Site
 

Effluent discharge into the waterways of Tamil Nadu, India

Sl. No.

Location
Drainage
area
(km2)
Discharge
(106 m3)
Industrial effluents (2) (mill. L day-1)
Domestic effluents (2) (mill. L day-1)
Annual methane emission (mg m-1 hr-1)
Maximum
Minimum
1
Adyar river
857
114
0.78
6.81
2
320.0
2
Ennore estuary (22)
70
NA
0.45
3.4
0.06
0.12
3
Buckingham canal
NA
NA*
0.48
14
-
-
4
Vellar-Colerron estuary (22)
14
850
Nil
Negligible
0.24
1.60
NA – Not available
* - Carries only stormwater, domestic and industrial effluents
Ø Soil temperature, sediment water content, salinity and sulfate were found to be critical natural variables influencing the methane emission rates.
Ø This study indicates that due to human interference in this ecosystem, on an average, ~15.58 mg m2 hr1 of methane is emitted from the Adyar Estuary, which is significantly higher than that reported for similar unpolluted natural wetlands (~ 6.02 mg m-2 hr-1). At the confluence of the Adyar Estuary with the Bay of Bengal, the emission characteristics were significantly reduced (3.27 mg m-2 hr-1) due to the influence of seawater.
 

Summary statistics of the analytical data

Sl. No.
Parameter
Premonsoon
 
 
 
 
Postmonsoon
 
 
 
Mininum
Maximum
Mean
s
 
Minimum
Maximum
Mean
s
1
pH
5.95
6.73
6.31
0.023
 
7.48
8.96
8.29
0.4
2
EC (lS/cm)
1679.69
5120.31
2708.02
1126.50
 
656.25
13759.38
3558.15
3031.41
3
TDS (mg/L)
1075.00
3277.00
1733.13
720.96
 
420.00
8806.00
2277.22
1940.10
4
Ca2+  (mg/L)
56.00
208.00
124.96
35.80
 
48.00
424.00
197.70
114.43
5
Mg2+  (mg/L)
16.40
120.60
55.60
32.25
 
12.00
686.00
134.17
142.48
6
Na+  (mg/L)
136.30
795.00
311.94
193.47
 
31.82
1120.00
391.25
331.14
7
K+  (mg/L)
0.00
44.17
12.90
13.78
 
0.00
64.80
11.31
17.60
8
HCO3-(mg/L)
224.80
1037.00
375.48
210.45
 
170.80
732.00
368.86
148.17
9
SO2-(mg/L)
4
204.00
292.00
238.58
30.26
 
32.42
272.00
176.74
68.27
10
Cl-(mg/L)
110.00
1210.00
435.39
268.79
 
150.00
3470.00
956.96
903.16
11
F-(mg/L)
0.48
2.03
1.18
0.39
 
0.15
0.91
0.50
0.20
12
NO-(mg/L)
3
4.21
45.93
18.67
11.32
 
1.02
75.91
21.07
22.15
13
NO-(mg/L)
2
0.01
1.07
0.25
0.22
 
0.09
3.61
0.7
1.03
14
PO3-(mg/L)
4
0.24
4.67
1.09
1.11
 
0
0.13
0.06
0.03
15
SiO2  (mg/L)
26.60
32.50
29.44
2.05
 
9.2
28.3
26.47
3.82
16
Cu (mg/L)
0.012
0.098
0.064
0.019
 
0.011
0.088
0.051
0.022
17
Co (mg/L)
0.002
0.074
0.034
0.025
 
0.003
0.068
0.028
0.023
18
Zn (m/L)
0.006
0.066
0.024
0.016
 
0.005
0.250
0.035
0.053
19
Fe (mg/L)
0.066
4.618
0.791
0.925
 
0.065
3.986
0.598
0.788
20
Pb (mg/L)
0.012
0.618
0.186
0.164
 
0.008
0.548
0.139
0.148
21
Cr (mg/L)
0.012
0.457
0.103
0.104
 
0.012
0.650
0.113
0.155
 

Rotated component matrix: (a) premonsoon and (b) postmonsoon

 (a) Premonsoon  (a)

 
Sl. No.
 
Factor 1
Factor 2
Factor 3
Factor 4
Factor 5
Factor 6
Factor 7
1
PH
-0.359
0.689
-0.355
0.147
0.073
0.032
-0.206
2
EC
0.958
-0.090
0.105
0.123
0.113
0.037
-0.018
3
TDS
0.958
-0.089
0.104
0.124
0.113
0.039
-0.020
4
Ca
0.105
0.012
0.905
0.062
0.018
0.097
0.145
5
Mg
0.893
0.035
-0.214
0.012
0.072
0.127
-0.068
6
Na
0.964
-0.122
0.023
0.003
0.038
-0.040
-0.050
7
K
0.766
-0.094
-0.136
-0.183
-0.211
-0.201
0.001
8
HCO3
0.680
-0.073
-0.258
0.294
0.143
0.020
0.463
9
SO4
0.602
-0.150
0.509
0.198
0.092
0.052
0.040
10
Cl
0.869
-0.160
0.350
-0.037
-0.007
-0.023
-0.185
11
F
0.038
0.020
-0.089
0.130
0.816
0.327
-0.203
12
NO3
-0.040
-0.361
0.321
0.564
0.287
-0.145
0.199
13
NO2
-0.088
-0.238
0.484
0.219
0.152
-0.596
-0.006
14
PO4
0.747
0.004
0.212
-0.074
0.084
-0.160
0.291
15
Si
-0.186
-0.047
-0.156
0.163
-0.814
0.171
-0.178
16
Cu
-0.073
-0.016
0.179
0.173
-0.028
0.134
0.853
17
Co
0.173
-0.002
-0.102
0.745
-0.134
-0.233
0.053
18
Zn
-0.034
0.316
0.333
0.702
0.029
0.221
0.204
19
Fe
0.019
0.734
-0.028
-0.412
0.036
-0.099
0.136
20
Pb
-0.084
-0.133
0.212
-0.053
0.149
0.859
0.147
21
Cr
-0.190
0.868
0.099
0.219
0.002
0.016
-0.025
22
Eigenvalue
60.97
20.78
20.02
10.68
10.39
10.31
10.01
23
% variance
330.21
130.25
90.64
80.01
60.60
60.22
40.80
 

 (a) Postmonsoon  (b)

 
Sl. No.
 
Factor1
Factor 2
Factor 3
Factor 4
Factor 5
Factor 6
1
PH
-0.491
-0.595
-0.207
0.240
0.154
0.014
2
EC
0.969
0.122
0.069
0.057
0.046
0.016
3
TDS
0.969
0.122
0.069
0.057
0.046
0.016
4
Ca
0.729
0.422
0.163
0.229
-0.004
-0.099
5
Mg
0.940
0.055
-0.005
-0.076
-0.017
0.044
6
Na
0.897
0.015
0.108
0.260
0.227
-0.055
7
K
0.839
-0.224
0.045
-0.022
0.161
-0.113
8
HCO3
0.399
0.059
0.296
-0.122
0.243
0.286
9
SO4
0.616
0.161
0.465
-0.101
0.202
-0.008
10
Cl
0.906
0.198
0.042
0.278
0.043
-0.020
11
F
0.249
-0.069
0.160
0.793
-0.077
-0.204
12
NO3
0.101
0.911
0.110
0.030
0.233
-0.131
13
NO2
0.059
0.796
0.110
0.440
-0.025
-0.054
14
PO4
0.190
0.037
0.012
0.220
0.778
-0.203
15
SI
0.125
-0.004
0.957
0.155
0.058
0.066
16
Cu
0.061
0.289
-0.068
0.731
0.044
0.324
17
Co
-0.085
-0.447
0.187
-0.058
0.218
0.696
18
Zn
-0.030
-0.015
0.070
0.032
-0.071
0.870
19
Fe
-0.090
-0.215
-0.914
-0.017
-0.005
-0.130
20
Pb
-0.053
0.312
0.117
0.554
-0.664
-0.188
21
Cr
-0.094
-0.158
-0.145
0.151
-0.727
-0.177
22
Eigen value
70.53
20.94
20.30
10.71
10.39
10.17
23
% variance
350.88
140.01
100.95
80.16
60.62
50.57
 
Ø The results of the R-mode factor analysis reveal that the groundwater chemistry of the study area reflects the influence of anthropogenic activities, rock-water interactions, saline water intrusion into the river water, and subsequent percolation into the groundwater.
Ø The complex geochemical data of the groundwater were interpreted by reducing them to seven major factors, and the seasonal variation in the chemistry of water was clearly brought out by these factors.
Ø The higher concentration of heavy metals such as Fe and Cr is attributed to the rock-water interaction and effluents from industries such as tanning, chrome-plating, and dyeing.
Ø In the urban area, the Pb concentration is high due to industrial as well as urban runoff of the atmospheric deposition from automobile pollution.
Ø Factor score analysis was used successfully to delineate the stations under study with the contributing factors, and the seasonal effect on the sample stations was identified and evaluated.
 

Biological entities

 Rotifer diversity of Adyar estuary during different seasons from July 2010-June 2011

 
Sl. No.
Zooplankton species
Pre monsoon
Monsoon
Post monsoon
Summer
1
Rotifers
 
 
 
 
2
Brachionus plicatilis
+*
+*
+*
+*
3
B.rotundiformis
+
-
+*
+*
4
B. ruben
+*
-
-
+*
5
B. urceolaris
+
-
+
-
6
B. bidenta
-
-
+
+
7
B. durgae
+
+
-
-
8
Lecane papuana
-
-
+
-
9
Monostyla hamata
-
+
-
-
 
 
(+) = Present, (-) = Absent, (+*) = Abundant
 

Pearson’s Correlation coefficient values between physicochemical parameters and rotifer density of Adyar estuary

 
Sl. No.
 
 
Atm. temp
 
Water temp.
 
pH
 
Salinity
 
DO
 
NO2
 
NH3
 
PO4
 
Rotifer
density
1
Atm. temp
1.000
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2
Water temp.
.698*
1.000
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3
pH
.725**
.564
1.000
 
 
 
 
 
 
4
Salinity
-.410
-.446
-.848**
1.000
 
 
 
 
 
5
DO
-.772**
-.713**
-.768**
.682*
1.000
 
 
 
 
6
NO2
-.453
-.222
-.571
.432
.176
1.000
 
 
 
7
NH3
.340
.549
.718**
-.871**
-.791**
-.135
1.000
 
 
8
PO4
.633*
.822**
.589*
-.503
-.689*
-.262
.590*
1.000
 
9
Rotifer
density
 
.481
 
.371
 
.621*
 
-.671*
 
-.587*
 
-.292
 
.612*
 
.477
 
1.000
 
*  Correlation is significant at the .05 level (2-tailed).
**  Correlation is significant at the .01 level (2-tailed).
 
Ø The temperature, pH, nitrite, ammonia and phosphate were increased during summer and pre-monsoon   months, while   dissolved oxygen showed decreased value.
Ø When  the  sand-bar  is  formed, due  to heavy  tidal stream during summer and pre monsoon months  in  the mouth of  estuary  and  no  exchange  of water  between  the marine  and  fresh water  habitat  resulting  in  decrease of  salinity. 
Ø This  temporary  stagnant  untreated  domestic  sewage  leads  to  eutrophication  in  the  estuarine water  body. 
Ø These  conditions  can  be  favaurable  for  rotifer  because of their short life cycle, food and feeding habitats, metabolisms and parthenogenetic  mode of reproduction which increase their density. All these factors indicate the potentiality  of  zooplankton  particularly  rotifers  Brachionus  sp.  as  bioindicator  for  domestic  sewage  pollution.
Ø There is an urgent need to control or restore the discharge of domestic sewage and  other  domestic  sewage  activities  to  restore  breeding  ground  of  finfish  and  shell  fish  and secondary  and  tertiary  productivity  in  the  estuarine water  body  for  the  benefit  of Chennai coast.
 

Zooplankton density (ind. m-3) during July 2009 – June 2010 from Adyar estuary,  Chennai


Sl. No.
 
Pre-Monsoon (July-September)
Monsoon
(October-December)
Post-Monsoon (January-March)
Summer (April-June)
1
Rotifers Cladocerans
494166±76418
-
61667±1667
3250±333
415000±95481
-
1351667±80267
 -
2
Harpacticoids
Calanoids
880666±134880
286000±39715
29333±1613
30667±1752
229444±25281
62500±5123
108083±16799
-
3
Cyclopoids
183000±52381
57417±3451
446389±94785
427417±145576
4
Total
1843832±209077
182334±6257
1153333±220670
1887167±242641
  
Values are mean of four sampling site ± SE in each season; NF = Not found
 
 

Fish known to occur in the Adyar estuarine reach: historical records in relation to the present survey (Ramanujam et al., 2014)

 
 
Species
1916*
1937
1950
1967
1982
Present
 
 
Class: Chondrichthyes (Cartilaginous Fishes)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Order: Rajiformes (Rays)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Family: Rhinobatidae (Guitarfishes)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
Grey Guitarfish Rhinobatus obtusus Muller & Henle
-
-
-
-
-
+
 
 
Family: Dasyatidae (Stingrays)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2
Honeycombed Stingray Dasyatis uarnak (Forsskal)
-
-
-
-
-
+
 
3
Taeniura sp. Muller & Henle
-
-
-
-
-
+
 
 
Class: Osteichthyes (Bony Fishes)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Order: Clupeiformes (Herrings and allies)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Family: Clupeidae (Sardines and Shads)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4
Kelee Shad Hilsa kelee (Cuvier)
-
-
-
-
-
+
 
5
Bloch’s Gizzard Shad Nematalosa nasus (Bloch)
-
-
-
-
-
+
 
6
Goldstripe Sardinella Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker)
-
+
+
-
-
+
 
7
Fringescale Sardinella Sardinella fimbriata (Valenciennes)
-
-
-
-
+
-
 
8
White Sardinella Sardinella albella (Valenciennes)
-
-
-
-
+
-
 
9
White Sardine Escualosa thoracata (Valenciennes)
-
-
-
-
-
+
 
 
Family: Chirocentridae
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10
Wolf Herring Chirocentrus dorab (Forsskal)
-
-
-
-
+
-
 
 
Family: Engraulidae (Anchovies)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11
Malabar Thryssa Thryssa malabarica (Bloch)
-
-
-
-
+
+
 
12
Moustached Thryssa Thryssa mystax (Hamilton)
-
-
-
-
+
+
 
13
Gangetic Anchovy Thryssa purava (Hamilton)
+
+
+
+
+
-
 
14
Commerson’s Anchovy Stolephorus commersonii Lacepede
-
+
+
?
-
-
 
15
Indian Anchovy Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt)
-
-
-
?
+
-
 
 
Order: Elopiformes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Family: Elopidae (Ladyfishes and Tenpounders)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
16
Tenpounder Elops machnata (Forsskal)
+
+
+
+
+
+
 
 
Family: Albulidae (Bonefishes)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
17
Bonefish Albula vulpes (Linnaeus)
-
-
-
-
-
+
 
 
Family: Megalopidae (Tarpons)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
18
Indo-Pacific Tarpon Megalops cyprinoides (Broussonet)
+
+
+
+
+
+
 
 
Order: Anguilliformes (Eels)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Family: Anguillidae (Freshwater Eels)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
19
Indian Shortfin Eel Anguilla bicolor McClelland
+
-
-
-
+
+
 
 
Family: Ophichthidae (Snake Eels)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20
Ophichthus microcephalus (Day)
-
-
+
-
-
+
 
21
Rice-paddy Eel Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton)
-
-
-
-
-
+
 
 
Order: Gonorynchiformes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Family: Chanidae (Milk Fish)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22
Milk Fish Chanos chanos (Forsskal)
-
+
+
+
+
+
 
 
Order: Cypriniformes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Family: Cyprinidae (Carps and allies)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23
Long-snouted Barb Puntius dorsalis (Jerdon)
+
+
+
?
-
-
 
 
24
Black-spot or Indian Tiger Barb Puntius filamentous
(Valenciennes)
 
+
 
-
 
+
 
?
 
-
 
-
 
25
Spotfin or Swamp Barb Puntius sophore (Hamilton)
+
+
+
?
-
-
 
26
Firefin or Two-spot Barb Puntius ticto (Hamilton)
-
-
+
?
-
-
 
27
Kooli Barb Puntius vittatus Day
+
-
-
?
+
-
 
 
28
Puntius mahecola (=P. amphibius) (Valenciennes)
+
+
+
?
-
-
 
29
Bloch’s Razorbelly Minnow Salmostoma clupeoides (Bloch)
+
-
+
-
-
-
 
30
Silver Razorbelly Minnow Salmostoma acinaces (Valenciennes)
-
-
+
-
-
-
 
31
Indian Carplet Amblypharyngodon microlepis (Bleeker)
+
-
+
-
-
-
 
32
Flying Barb Esomus danricus (Hamilton)
+
-
+
-
-
-
 
33
Kalabans Labeo dero (Hamilton)
-
-
-
-
-
+
 
34
Fringe-lipped Peninsular Carp Labeo fimbriatus (Bloch)
-
-
+
-
-
-
 
35
Malabar Labeo Labeo dussumieri (Valenciennes)
-
-
-
-
+
-
 
36
Reba Carp Cirrhinus reba (Hamilton)
+
-
+
-
-
-
 
37
Catla Gibelion catla (Hamilton)
-
-
-
-
-
+
 
38
Hamilton’s Baril Barilius bendelisis (Hamilton)
-
-
+
-
-
-
 
 
Order: Siluriformes (Catfishes)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Family: Bagridae
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
39
Keletius Mystus Mystus keletius (Valenciennes)
+
+
+
-
-
-
 
40
Striped Dwarf Catfish Mystus vittatus (Bloch)
+
+
+
+
-
-
 
41
Mystus cf gulio**
-
+
+
+
-
+
 
 
Family: Clariidae (Airbreathing Catfish)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
42
Magur Clarius batrachus (Linnaeus)
+
-
-
-
-
-
 
 
Family: Plotosidae (Eeltail Catfish)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
43
Canine Catfish Eel Plotosus canius Hamilton
-
+
+
-
-
-
 
44
Striped Eel Catfish Plotosus lineatus (Thunberg)
-
-
-
-
+
-
 
 
Family: Siluridae
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
45
Shark Catfish Wallago attu (Schneider)
-
-
+
-
-
-
 
 
Family: Ariidae
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
46
Hamilton’s Catfish Arius arius (Hamilton)
-
-
-
?
-
+
 
47
Small-eyed Catfish Arius jella Day
-
-
-
?
-
+
 
48
Spotted Catfish Arius maculates (Thunberg)
+
-
-
?
+
+
 
49
Dussumier’s Catfish Arius dussumieri Valenciennes
-
-
-
?
+
-
 
 
Order: Muguliformes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Family: Mugilidae (Mullets)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
50
Goldspot Mullet Liza parsia (Hamilton)
-
-
+
?
+
+
 
51
Borneo Mullet Liza macrolepis (Smith)
-
-
-
?
+
+
 
52
Tade Grey Mullet Liza tade (Forsskal)
-
-
-
?
+
+
 
53
Diamondscale Grey Mullet Liza vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard)
-
-
-
?
+
-
 
54
Bluespot Grey Mullet Valamugil seheli (Forsskal)
-
-
-
?
+
-
 
55
Flathead Grey Mullet Mugil cephalus Linnaeus
-
+
+
?
+
+
 
 
Order: Beloniformes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Family: Adrianichthyidae (Ricefishes)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
56
Ricefish Oryzias dancena (Hamilton)**
-
+
+
-
-
-
 
 
Family: Belonidae (Fullbeak Garfishes)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
57
Freshwater Garfish Xenentodon cancila (Hamilton)
+
-
+
-
-
+
 
 
Family: Hemiramphidae (Halfbeak garfishes)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
58
Congaturi Halfbeak Hyporhamphus limbatus (Valenciennes)
-
-
+
-
-
-
 
 
Order: Cyprinodontiformes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Family: Aplocheilidae (Panchax Minnows)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
59
Dwarf Panchax Aplocheilus parvus Raj**
-
+
+
-
-
-
 
 
Order: Synbranchiformes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Family: Mastacembelidae (Spiny Eels)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
60
Onestripe Spiny Eel Macrognathus aral (Bloch & Schneider)
-
-
+
+
-
-
 
61
Striped Spiny Eel Macrognathus pancalus Hamilton
+
-
+
-
-
-
 
 
Order: Scorpaeniformes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Family: Platycephalidae (Flatheads)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
62
Indian Flathead Platycephalus indicus (Linnaeus)
-
+
+
-
-
-
 
63
Large-spined Flathead Platycephalus rodericensis Cuvier
-
-
-
-
+
-
 
64
Rough Flathead Platycephalus scaber (Linnaeus)
-
+
-
-
-
-
 
65
Serrated Flathead Platycephalus serratus Cuvier
-
-
-
-
+
-
 
 
Order: Perciformes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Family: Centropomidae (Sea Perch)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
66
Giant Seaperch or Seabass Lates calcarifer (Bloch)
+
-
+
+
-
+
 
 
Family: Ambassidae (Glassfishes)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
67
Commerson’s Glassy Perchlet Ambassis commersoni Cuvier
 
+
+
?
+
+
 
68
Myops Glassy Perchlet Ambassis miops Gunther
+
+
+
?
-
-
 
69
Indian Glassy Fish Pseudambassis ranga (Hamilton)
+
-
+
-
-
-
 
70
Elongate Glass Fish Chanda nama (Hamilton)
-
-
+
-
-
-
 
 
Family: Apogonidae
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
71
Twobelt Cardinal Apogon taeniatus (Cuvier)
-
-
+
-
-
-
 
72
Ring-tailed Cardinal Fish Apogon aureus Lacepede
-
-
+
-
-
-
 
 
Family: Serranidae (Groupers)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
73
Greasy Grouper Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskal)
-
-
-
?
+
-
 
74
Malabar Reefcod Epinephelus malabaricus (Schneider)
-
-
-
?
+
-
 
75
Red-banded Grouper Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskal)
-
+
+
?
-
-
 
 
Family: Sillaginidae (Sillagos)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
76
Silver Sillago Sillago sihama (Forsskal)
-
+
+
+
-
+
 
 
Family: Carangidae (Horse Mackerels)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
77
Tille Trevally Caranx tille Cuvier
-
-
-
-
-
+
 
78
Yellowfin Jack Caranx ignoblis (Forsskal)
-
-
-
-
-
+
 
79
Tille Jack Caranx sexfaciatus Quoy & Galmard
-
-
-
-
-
+
 
80
Banded Scad Caranx para Cuvier
-
-
-
-
-
+
 
81
Malabar Trevally Carangoides malabaricus (Bloch)
-
-
-
-
+
-
 
82
Alepes sp.
-
-
-
-
-
+
 
83
Threadfin Trevally Alectis ciliaris (Bloch)
-
+
+
-
-
-
 
 
Family: Lutjanidae (Snappers)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
84
John’s Snapper Lutjanus johni (Bloch)
-
+
+
?
+
-
 
85
Bigeye Snapper Lutjanus lineolatus (Ruppell)
-
-
+
?
-
-
 
 
Family: Leiognathidae (Ponyfishes)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
86
Splendid Ponyfish Leiognathus splendens (Cuvier)
-
-
-
-
-
+
 
87
Orangefin Ponyfish Leiognathus bindus (Valenciennes)
-
-
-
-
+
-
 
88
Striped Ponyfish Leiognathus fasciatus (Lacepede)
-
-
-
-
+
-
 
89
Pugnose ponyfish Secutor insidiator (Bloch)
-
-
+
-
-
+
 
90
Deep Pugnose Ponyfish Secutor ruconius (Hamilton)
-
-
-
-
-
+
 
91
Toothed Ponyfish Gazza minuta (Bloch)
-
-
-
-
-
+
 
 
Family: Gerreidae (Mojarras)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
92
Whipfin Mojarra Gerres filamentosus Cuvier
-
-
-
+
-
+
 
93
Common Mojarra Gerres oyena (Forsskal)
-
-
+
-
-
+
 
94
Silvery Mojarra Gerres poeti Cuvier
-
-
-
-
-
+
 
 
Family: Lethrinidae (Breams)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
95
Starry Pigface Bream Lethrinus nebulosa (Forsskal)
-
-
-
-
+
-
 
 
Family: Pomadasyidae (Sweetlips)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
96
Black Sweetlip Plectorhynchus nigrus (Cuvier)
-
-
-
-
-
+
 
 
Family: Polynemidae (Threadfins)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
97
Common Threadfin Polydactulus plebius (Broussonet)
-
-
-
-
-
+
 
98
Sevenfinger Threadfin Polydactylus heptadactylus (Cuvier)
-
-
-
-
+
-
 
99
Indian Threadfin Polydactylus indicus (Shaw)
-
-
-
-
+
-
 
100
Fourfinger Threadfin Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw)
-
+
+
-
-
-
 
 
Family: Teraponidae (Perches and Grunters)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
101
Jarbua Terapon or Target Perch Terapon jarbua (Forsskal)
-
+
+
+
+
+
 
102
Small-scaled Banded Grunter Terapon puta Cuvier
-
+
+
-
+
+
 
103
Four-lined Terapon Pelates quadrilineatus (Bloch)
-
+
-
-
-
-
 
 
Family: Mullidae (Goatfishes)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
104
Yellow Goatfish Upeneus sulphureus Cuvier
-
+
+
-
-
+
 
 
Family: Ephippidae (Drepanes)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
105
Banded Drepane Drepane longimana (Bloch & Schneider)
-
-
-
-
-
+
 
 
Family: Scatophagidae (Butterfishes)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
106
Spotted Scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus)
-
+
+
-
-
+
 
 
Family: Sphyraenidae (Barracudas)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
107
Banded Barracuda Sphyraena jello Cuvier
-
+
-
-
-
+
 
108
Great Barracuda Sphyraena barracuda (Walbaum)
-
-
-
-
+
-
 
109
William’s Barracuda Sphyraena bleekeri Williams
-
-
-
-
+
-
 
 
Family: Siganidae (Rabbitfishes)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
110
Streaky Spinefoot Siganus javus (Linnaeus)
-
-
+
-
+
+
 
111
White-spotted Spinefoot Siganus canaliculatus (Park)
-
-
-
-
+
-
 
 
Family: Cichlidae (Cichlids)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
112
Orange Chromide Etroplus maculatus (Bloch)
+
+
+
-
-
+
 
113
Banded Pearlspot Etroplus suratensis (Bloch)
+
+
+
+
-
-
 
 
114
Tilapia or Egyptian Mouthbreeder Oreochromis mossambica
(Peters)
 
-
 
-
 
-
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
 
Family: Gobiidae (Gobies)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
115
Tank Goby Glossogobius giurus (Hamilton)
+
+
+
-
-
-
 
116
Tail-eyed Goby Parachaeturichthys polynema (Bleeker)
-
+
+
-
-
-
 
117
Horny Goby Yongeichthys criniger (Valenciennes)
-
+
+
-
-
-
 
118
Mangrove Goby Psammogobius biocellatus (Valenciennes)
-
-
-
-
+
-
 
119
Hasselt’s Goby Callogobius haseltti (Bleeker)
-
-
-
-
+
-
 
120
Sharptail Goby Oligolepis acutipennis (Valenciennes)
+
+
-
-
-
-
 
121
Meggit’s Goby Bathygobius meggitti (Hora & Mukerji)
-
+
-
-
-
-
 
122
Indo-Pacific Tropical Sand Goby Favonigobius reichei (Bleeker)
+
+
+
-
-
-
 
123
Spotted Green Goby Acentrogobius viridipunctatus (Valenciennes)
-
+
-
-
-
-
 
124
Oxyurichthys tentacularis (Valenciennes)
+
+
+
-
-
-
 
125
Apocryptichthys sp.
-
+
-
-
-
-
 
126
Scartelos cantoris (Day)
-
-
+
-
-
-
 
127
Boddart’s Google-eyed Goby Boleophthalmus boddaerti (Pallas)
-
+
+
-
-
-
 
128
Dusky Sleeper Eleotris fusca (Forster)
+
+
+
-
-
-
 
129
Atlantic Mudskipper Periophthalmus barbarus (Linnaeus)
-
+
+
-
-
-
 
130
Pearse’s Mudskipper Periophthalmus novemradiatus (Hamilton)
-
+
+
-
-
-
 
 
Family: Blennidae
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
131
Zebra Blenny Omobranchus zebra (Bleeker)
-
+
-
-
-
-
 
 
Family: Anabantidae (Climbing perch)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
132
Climbing Perch Anabas testudineus (Bloch)
+
-
+
-
-
+
 
 
Family: Channidae (Snakeheads)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
133
Spotted Snakehead Channa punctatus (Bloch)
+
-
+
?
-
-
 
134
Striped Snakehead Channa striatus (Bloch)
+
-
+
?
-
-
 
135
Asiatic Snakehead Channa gachua (Hamilton)
+
-
-
?
-
-
 
 
Family: Stromateidae (Pomfrets)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
136
Silver Pomfret Pampus argenteus (Euphrasen)
-
-
-
-
-
+
 
 
Order: Tetradontiformes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Family: Triacanthidae (Tripod Fishes)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
137
Tripod Fish Triacanthus brevirostris Schlegel
-
+
+
-
-
+
 
138
Short-nosed Tripod Fish Triacanthus biaculeatus (Bloch)
-
-
-
-
-
+
 
 
Family: Tetraodontidae (Puffers)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
139
Milkspotted Puffer Chelonodon patoca (Hamilton)
-
+
+
-
-
-
 
140
Smooth Blaasop Lagocephalus inermis (Temminck & Schlegel)
-
+
+
-
-
-
 
 
Family; Soleidae (Tongue Soles)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
141
Large-toothed Flounder Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton – Buchanan)
 
-
 
-
 
+
 
-
 
-
 
-
 
142
Day’s Tongue Sole Cynoglossus dispar Day
-
-
+
-
-
-
 
143
Gangetic Tongue Sole Cynoglossus cynoglossus (Hamilton)
-
-
-
-
+
-
 
144
Long Tongue Sole Cynoglossus lingua Hamilton
-
-
-
-
+
-
 
+ = Present; - = Absent; ? = Only genus or group mentioned; species are conjenctural (hence the symbol ‘?’)
* - Raj (1916) mentions “……. my examination being confined to the rivers Cooum and Adyar….”. Hence it is conjenctured that species listed as “estuarine”, “occurring within tidal influence”, “brackishwater” and “backwater” were encountered by him in both the Cooum and Adyar estuaries
** - Present systematics have been applied and nomenclature standardised [for example, Aplocheilus parvus was considered a synonym of A. blochii but Eapen (2007) has conclusively proved that species are distinct and A. parvus occurs along the east coast whereas A. blochii is restricted to the western region. The same applies to Oryzias spp. which have been revised recently (Roberts 1998)] The identity of the tentatively named Mystus cf. gulio needs to be confirmed based on revisionary work
 

 References

  1. Nirmal Rajkumar, A., J. Barnes, R. Ramesh, R. Purvaja and R.C. Upstill–Goddard, 2008. Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in the polluted Adyar river and estuary, SE India. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 56: 20432–2051.
  2. Ramachandran Ramesh, Ganapathiagraharam Ramachandran Purvaja, Danesh Chand Parashar, Prabhat Kumar Gupta and Ashesh Prasad Mitra, 1997. Anthropogenic Forcing on Methane Efflux from Polluted Wetlands (Adyar River) of Madras city, India. Ambio, 26(6): 369–374.
  3. Venugopal, T., L. Giridharan and M. Jayaprakash, 2008. Groundwater Quality Assessment Using Chemometric Analysis in the Adyar River, South India. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 55: 180–190.
  4. Janakiraman, A., M.S. Naveed and K. Altaff, 2012. Impact of domestic sewage pollution on rotifer abundance in Adyar estuary. International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 3(1): 689–696.
  5. Janakiraman, A., M.S. Naveed and K. Altaff, 2012. Impact of domestic sewage pollution on rotifer abundance in Adyar estuary. International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 3(1): 689–696.
  6. Eric Ramanujam, M., K. Rema Devi and T.J. Indra, 2014. Ichthyofaunal diversity of the Adyar Wetland complex, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, southern India. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 6(4): 5613–5635.