ENVIS Centre, Ministry of Environment & Forest, Govt. of India

Printed Date: Tuesday, August 4, 2020

Palk bay

 Palk Bay

 

Palk Bay
 
Name of the area
:
Palk Bay
Place :
:
Near Rameswaram
State :
:
Tamilnadu
Latitude :
:
9°55’ – 10°45’N
Longitude :
:
78°58’ – 79°55’E
     
     
Key Physical Characters
     
Estimated reef area
   
   
Reef starts from Munakad (1-2m Broad) and runs east up to
   
Tonithurai.(5.5km) width of the reefs attains 300m
     
   
East to the Pamban pass , the reef again starts near
   
Thangachimadam and end near Angitheertham(Rameswaram)
     
Depth
:
9 meter (Never Exclude 15 mts)
Tidal amplitude (in meter) :
:
1m (generally calm) except in North-East Monsoon
Water temperature:
:
24.60c and 29.10c
     
     
Chemical Characters
pH :
:
7.5 to 8.4
Salinity :
:
22.5 to 35 ppt
Dissolved Oxygen :
:
3.29 to 5.44 mg/l
     
     
Bidiversity
Biodiversity status
 
Foraminifera 51
   
Tintinnids 12
   
Flora 143
   
Sponges 275
   
Coelentrates (other than corals) 123
   
Stony corals 128
   
Polyzoa 100
   
Polychaeta 75
   
Insecta 1
   
Crustacea 651
   
Mollusca 733
   
Echinodermata 274
   
Prochordata 66
   
Fishes 580
   
Turtles 5
   
Birds 61
   
Mammals 11
     
Major flora Fauna
   
Phytoplankton
 
List of phytoplankton species recorded from Kattumavadi, Palk Bay.
   
(Sridhar et al 2006)
     
   
Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms)
   
Achnanthes brevipes - Not available
   
Asterionella glacialis - Not available 
   
Bacteriastrum delicatulum - Threatened
   
Cerataulina bergonii - Not evaluated
   
C. indicus sp. - Not  available
   
C. orientalis -  Not  available
   
Climacosphenia elongata - Not available
   
Coscinodiscus jonesianus (Greville) -  Not available
   
C. lineatus Ehrenberg - Not available
   
C. marginatus - Not available 
   
C. sub-lineatus - Not available
   
Fragilaria brevistriata - Not available
   
G. sphaerophorum - Least concern
   
Grammatophora undulata - Not available
   
Gyrosigma balticum - Not available
   
G. disortum - Not available
   
Navicula cincta - Not available
   
N. cuspidata Kutz. - Not available
   
Nitzschia closterium - Not evaluated
   
N. longissima - Not evaluated
   
N. sigma - Not evaluated
   
Odontella heteroceros - Not available
   
O. mobiliensis - Not evaluated
   
O. pulchella - Not available
   
Pinnularia acrosphaeria - Not available
   
Planktoniella sol - Least concern
   
P. aestuarii - Not available
   
P. angulatum - Not available
   
P. elongatum. - Not evaluated
   
P. normanii - Not available
   
Pyxidicula minuta - Not available
   
Rhizosolenia alata - Not available
   
R. crassispina - Not available
   
R. cylindrus Cleve - Not available
   
Synedra ulna - Not available
   
Tabellaria fenestrate - Not available
   
Thallassionema nitzschioides - Not available
   
T. lineatum - Not available
   
Thallassiothrix frauenfeldii - Not available
   
T. longissima - Not available
   
T. favus - Not available
   
T. reticulatum - Not available
   
T. robertsianum - Not available
     
   
Cyanophyceae (Blue-green)
   
Aphanocapsa conferta - Not avaiable 
   
Chroococcus indicus - Not available
     
   
Phytoplankton bloom : Generally 2 to 3 blooms occur in a year particularly
     
     
Commercially Important Shell Fishes
   
   
Lobster, crabs, cephalopods (foreign exchange earner), cuttle fish, pearl oyster etc.,
     
Fin Fishes
   
   
Fishes 580
Flora
   
   
61 species of marine macroalgae
     
   
Green algae (14 genera and 28 species)
     
   
Ulva lactuca - Not evaluated
   
U. reticulate - Endangered
   
Cladophora sp. - Near threatened
   
Chaetomorpha sp. - Not available
   
Neomeris annulata - Not evaluated
   
Acetabularia moebii - Not available
   
Halicystis boergesenii - Not available
   
Valonia aegagropila - Not evaluated
   
Boergesenia forbesii - Not evaluated
   
Microdictyon agardianum - Not evaluated
   
Struvea delicatula - Not available
   
Caulerpa cupressoides - Not evaluated
   
C. fergusonii - Not threatened
   
C. Mexicana - Not evaluated
   
C. micropysa - Not available
   
C. peltata - Not evaluated
   
C. racemosa. V. clavifera - Least concern
   
C. racemosa V. coryneflora - Least concern
   
C. scalpelliformis - Not available
   
C. serrulata v. typical, formalata - Not evaluated
   
C. sertularioides forma brevipes - Not evaluated
   
C. sertularioides forma longiseta- Not evaluated
   
C. taxifolia - Not evaluated
   
C. verticillata -  Not evaluated
   
Udotea javensis - Not available
   
Halimeda opunita - Not avialable
   
H. tuna - Not available
   
Codium sp. - Not evaluated
     
   
Brown algae (8 genera and 13 species)
     
   
Dictyota spp. - Not evaluated
   
Padina commersonii - Not available
   
P. gymnospora - Not available
   
P. pavonia - Not available
   
P. tetrastromatica - Not available
   
Pocockiella variegate - Not available
   
Pocockiella sp. - Not available
   
Hydroclathrus clathratus - Not available
   
Chnoospora implexa - Not available
   
Hormophysa triquetra - Not available
   
Sargassum sp. - Endangered
   
Turbinaria conoides - Not evaluated
   
T. ornate - Not available
     
   
Red algae (17 genera and 20 species)
     
   
Gelidiella acerosa - Not evaluated
   
Gelidium pusillum - Not evaluated
   
Amphiroa fragilissima - Not evaluated
   
Chondrococcus harnemanni - Not available
   
Gracilaria crassa - Not available
   
G. foliifera - Not evaluated
   
Glichenoides - Not available
   
Hypnea spp. - Not evaluated
   
Champia globulifera - Not available
   
Wranglia argus - Not available
   
Ceramium spp. - Data deficient
   
Centroceras clavulatum - Not evaluated
   
Spyridia filamentosa - Not evaluated
   
Martensia fragilis - Not evaluated
   
Roschera glomerulata - Not available
   
Leveillea jungermannioides - Not evaluated
   
Cohondrai dasyphylla - Not evaluated
   
Acanthophora spicifera - Not threatened
   
Laurencia obtuse - Not available
   
L. papillosa - Not available
     
   
Seagrasses
   
Cumodocea sp. - Least concern
   
Diplanthera wrightii - Not available
   
Syringodium filiforme - Least concern
   
Halophila ovalis - Least concern
     
Endangered species
 
Turtules, seahorses, dolphins, dugongs etc.,
     
Archeologically/Ecologically Important Places
   
     
Palk Bay
:
 
   
The reefs has been classified into 5 Zones Shore
   
Lagoon
   
Shoreward slope
   
Reef crest
   
Seaward slope
 
:
 
Coral
:
 
 
:
The Scleractinian fauna of Palk Bay (82 species and 27 genera)
 
:
 
Environmental status
:
 
Associated ecosystem
:
 
   
Mangroves, seaweeds, seagrass etc.,
Gross average productivity in benthic floor
:
 
 
:
142 to 472 mg C.m3d-1
Major threats
:
 
 
:
Cyclonic winds, strong monsoon winds (cause mechanical damage), dumping untreated domestic and industrial waste into the oceans, unscrupulous fishing, using trawl nets in shallow depths 2 to 3 fathoms (or) by use of shore seine fishing nets around coral reef areas, coral minning, coral bleaching etc.,

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